Since its introduction by the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) in 1987, Benchmarks®, a 360-degree assessment, has been used by approximately 16,000 organizations and over 200,000 managers. Data collected through the administration of Benchmarks has resulted in large comprehensive databases. These data have provided the basis for numerous studies. While we have attempted to be exhaustive in our search for published works, we acknowledge that there are probably more studies that have taken place than the ones reported here.
Target Audience and Purpose
The annotations on published research were written for anyone who is interested in the research leading to the development and refinement of Benchmarks, the interpretation of the assessment’s results, or the relationship of Benchmarks to other psychological assessments. They may also be helpful to anyone looking for paper, thesis, or dissertation topics. Writing an annotated bibliography typically helps the author(s) gain a good perspective on a topic—in this case, the assessment of leadership. By reading it, you’ll start to see the underlying key leadership issues and philosophical beliefs leading to the development of Benchmarks and what researchers argue are key issues related to the use of 360-degree feedback for leadership development by decade. You’ll then be able to develop your own point of view
Michael John Peterson is a doctoral candidate in the educational psychology, measurement, and evaluation program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In this program, Michael has conducted research on topics ranging from leadership to cognitive and motivational psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of emotional processing. He has a B.S. in physics from the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis and an M.S. in gifted education from Northeastern Illinois University.